Do not initiate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment in children outside of central precocious puberty, for the target outcome of delaying puberty and improving final adult height.
While there is some evidence that the use of GnRH agonists can achieve improvements in height in females with early puberty, it is also associated with the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescence and risks compromising bone health. Its use outside of clinical trials is not recommended. Given that the treatment duration must also be lengthy for its benefits to be manifested, its use is not recommended to augment height in adolescents with short stature and normally timed puberty.
- Chiavaroli V, Liberati M, D'Antonio F, et al. GnRH analog therapy in girls with early puberty is associated with the achievement of predicted final height but also with increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol 2010; 163(1):55–62.
- Dunkel L. Treatment of idiopathic short stature: effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, aromatase inhibitors and anabolic steroids. Horm Res Paediatr 2011 ;76 Suppl 3:27–9.
- Wit M, Visser-van Balen H, Kamp GA, et al. Benefit of postponing normal puberty for improving final height. European Journal of Endocrinology 2004; 151:S41–5.
- Yanovski JA, Rose SR, Municchi G, et al. Treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist in adolescents with short stature. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(10):908–17.
A working group of lead clinicians from APEG brainstormed an initial list of 11 low-value practices in paediatric endocrinology and a preliminary review of the evidence for each was undertaken. An online survey was developed based on these 11 recommendations along with a summary of the evidence for each, and circulated to APEG members for their feedback. For each recommendation, respondents were asked to assign a score from 1 to 5 (where 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree) on two criteria: ‘The recommendation is evidence based’ and ‘The recommendation is relevant to paediatric endocrinology in Australasia’. Based on the recommendations which received the highest average total scores, and after a final in-depth review of the related evidence, the final top five were chosen and approved by APEG.
- 1 Do not rely on random measures of circadian hormones for diagnostic purposes.
- 2 Do not rely solely on bone age measurement for assessing growth in young children with short stature under 2 years of age.
- 3 Do not routinely measure insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) for workup and diagnosis of childhood short stature.
- 4 Do not initiate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment in children outside of central precocious puberty, for the target outcome of delaying puberty and improving final adult height.
- 5 Do not routinely prescribe aromatase inhibitors to promote growth in children with short stature.